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Learning Resources LSP0339-UK 5-in-1 Outdoor Measure-Mate

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Nadelson and Southerland ( 2012) developed the I-SEA to make measures of evolution acceptance more fine-grained, embracing the possibility that evolution acceptance may comprise multiple related constructs which account for the specific type of evolution being considered. The authors cite that micro- and macroevolution are viewed differently by students (Nehm and Ha 2011). Specifically, many who reject macroevolution may readily accept ideas about microevolution (Scott 2005), and further, even those who accept evolution over long time scales often believe that humans are exempt from the process of evolution (Gallup 2010). Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(1), 1–49. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X00023992. Boxer, C. F., Noonan, M. C., & Whelan, C. B. (2013). Measuring mate preferences: a replication and extension. Journal of Family Issues, 36(2), 163–187. doi: 10.1177/0192513X13490404. Some items of the MATE involve context and others do not but the role of context in measurement of acceptance was not carefully considered. Hence the I-SEA instrument puts forth a three-dimensional model where acceptance of evolution is assessed along three constructs: (1) microevolution, (2) macroevolution, and (3) human evolution. In this article, we use the word “dimension” to refer to a quantitative representation of a construct which accounts for the correlation between item responses (Kline 2014). In discussion of the methods and results, we will also use the term “factor”, which refers to an individual construct or dimension (Kline 2014). In the case of the I-SEA, Nadelson and Southerland ( 2012) use three dimensions to account for the relationships between the responses, whereas the MATE and the GAENE use a single dimension to account for the correlation between responses on their respective items. In the development of the GAENE, Smith et al. ( 2016) argue that conflation of acceptance with knowledge, belief, and religious connotation limits the content validity of the MATE, thereby limiting our ability to use the MATE as a valid measure of evolution acceptance. Smith and colleagues henceforth developed set of items which are worded in such a way that they avoid these confounding factors. Treagust DF, Duit R. Conceptual change: a discussion of theoretical, methodological and practical challenges for science education. Cult Sci Educ. 2008;3(2):297–328.

Ferguson, C. J., & Heene, M. (2012). A vast graveyard of undead theories: publication bias and psychological science’s aversion to the null. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(6), 555–561. doi: 10.1177/1745691612459059. Fisher, M., Cox, A., Bennett, S., & Gavric, D. (2008). Components of self-perceived mate value. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2(4), 156–168. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099347. We also find that the two-dimensional parametrization aligns well with the more recent model of Ha et al. ( 2012), which describes evolution acceptance as manifesting through both conscious and unconscious neurological pathways. Our acceptance of truth dimension aligns most closely with the unconscious pathway which is based upon a student’s intuitive feeling of certainty. For example, evolution is a good explanation for how humans first emerged on the earth (from the GAENE) solicits an appraisal based on one’s feeling of certainty built from extracurricular experience, and not necessarily analysis of the credibility of an idea based on logic. On the other hand, the rejection of incredible ideas dimension aligns most closely with the student’s conscious, reflective thinking supported by his/her process of understanding and logical reasoning around conceptual ideas underlying evolutionary theory. For example, expressing disagreement with the statement, species were created to be perfectly suited to their environment, so they do not change (from the I-SEA) requires a student to first consider the specific idea and then decide to reject that idea. Although the decision to reject an idea is affective in nature, it is in itself a comparatively logical and reflective process. Jonason, P. K., & Buss, D. M. (2012). Avoiding entangling commitments: Tactics for implementing a short-term mating strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(5), 606–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.12.015. Seven of the 38 items measuring acceptance of the truth display at least one mean squares fit index of 1.30 or above. Those items with the greatest misfit (a mean squares fit index above 1.50) come from the GAENE (items GAENE1, GAENE6, and GAENE8from GAENE 2.1). GAENE1 states everyone should understand evolution. GAENE6 states I would be willing to argue in favor of evolution in a public forum such as a school club, church group, or meeting of public school parents. GAENE8 states nothing in biology makes sense without evolution. These are of moderate-to-high difficulty, indicating that even students who accepted that evolution is true tended to mark lower levels of acceptance on these items. These items are getting at other factors outside of acceptance of the truth of evolution.Its robust build means it will cope with vigorous use in rough terrain and all components fit into a handy mesh bag The Measure Mate worked amazingly well for all of the above features. The spirit levels weren’t accurate, but they did give you a rough idea of whether something was straight or tilted. I wouldn’t rely on it to put up a shelf though!

Our results largely replicated the findings by Sprecher et al. ( 1994) showing that in 9 out of 12 tests, the direction of the effect was the same. On average, women were more likely than men to indicate a preference for marrying someone older. Women also emphasized physical attractiveness less than men did, but valued a high earning potential more so than men did. Men on the other hand were more willing to marry someone younger, unlikely to hold a steady job, and with low earning potential than women did. However, there were some notable contrasts with the original study. For example, the overall magnitude of the sex differences seems smaller in our data than in Sprecher et al.’s (in 9 out of 12 tests, the absolute effect size was stronger in the original study). Sex differences in willingness to marry someone of different race or with less education had narrowed as predicted. However, unlike the 1994 study and against our second hypothesis, we observed a significant sex difference for willingness to marry the previously married, with women indicating a higher willingness to marry someone who had been married before. No other mate preferences displayed a narrowing between the sexes. Finally, our additional question also indicated that in our sample, women found marriage more important in long-term relationships than men did. This variable also moderated the willingness to marry someone older by five or more years, reducing the observed gender difference in willingness to marry someone older by five or more years. Our data suggest that when women indicated that marriage was important to them, they tended to be more willing to marry somebody who was older by 5 years or more. In contrast, for men, the importance of marriage was not significantly related to the willingness to marry someone who was 5 or more years older than themselves. We did not further explore individual differences and preferences, but for further research, it would be interesting to examine the degree to which attitudes towards marriage influence preferences. Harris S, Kemmerling RL, North MM. Brief virtual reality therapy for public speaking anxiety. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2002;5(6):543–50.

When the items from these three instruments are treated unidimensionally, we observe the pattern that it is the negatively-worded items which tend to misfit with the Rasch model, and also tend to load positively onto the residual factor (Tables 1, 3). Nine of the 19 negatively-worded items exhibit some misfit (a mean squares index over 1.3) with the Rasch model in this case. These results collectively illustrate the multidimensionality of the negatively-worded items under the assumption of a unidimensional model for evolution acceptance. It makes sense that the Rasch model would tend to model the positively-worded items more faithfully, and thus identify negatively-worded items as anomalous, since the 38 positively-worded items double the 19 items which are negatively-worded. Benjamin, D. J., Berger, J. O., Johannesson, M., Nosek, B. A., Wagenmakers, E. J., Berk, R., … Cesarini, D. (2018). Redefine statistical significance. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0189-z. Schmitt N, Stuits DM. Factors defined by negatively keyed items: the result of careless respondents? Appl Psychol Meas. 1985;9(4):367–73. Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(2–3), 61–83. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X0999152X. Brown, T. A. (2003). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire: Multiple factors or method effects? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(12), 1411–1426. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00059-7.

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